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In 1993 at the APT conference in Huntington Beach, CA., Jungian analyst John Beebe (ENTP) introduced a pioneering theory of the sequence of the eight mental functions. His theory proposes that each of our 4 preferred functions has an opposite shadow function. Each Myers Briggs personality has 4 shadow functions and those functions form a shadow personality. In cognitive theory, the shadow personality emerges under stressful circumstances and is manifest through the inferior function.

Beebe’s theory further hypothesizes 8 archetypes corresponding to the placement of each of Jung’s eight mental processes or functions in each personality type. The Hero function (1st) is mirrored by the Opposing Persona (5th); the Good Parent function (2nd) is mirrored by the Witch/Senex or Critical Parent (6th); the Puer/Puella or Child function (3rd) is mirrored by the Trickster (7th); and the Anima/Animus (4th) is mirrored by the Demon/Daimon (8th).

“The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real. This act is the essential condition for any kind of self-knowledge.” ~ Carl Jung


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