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7 Misunderstood Bad Guys Who Are (Kind of) Right

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You know how fiction goes—good guys, bad guys, maybe a couple of explosions here and then. Good guys save the day, the conflict ends, and the credits roll.

But what about the bad guys? Well, they are defeated and punished for their actions. In certain stories, they may even go through a redemption arc, after realizing they were in the wrong. 

Even if, sometimes, they’re not in the wrong at all. Continue reading

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    6 of the Most Infamous Cults in History

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    It’s in human nature to believe in something. Whether it is a moral code, a faith, a system, or a person, we all seek to identify ourselves with a concept and guide our rationale around it.

    Sadly, unscrupulous people take advantage of this aspect of human nature, making way to the establishment of cults. By definition, cults are social groups gathered together by sharing a particularly odd or strange belief. Needless to say, it’s a pejorative term with negative consequences.

    And not without reason.

    Many cults through history have been dangerous, if not flat-out murderous. Their leaders sometimes have nefarious purposes and take advantage of the emotional vulnerability of their followers to execute sinister plans, with terrible consequences. 

    Take a look at the worst cults in history—that we know of. Continue reading

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    7 of the Worst Pandemics in Human History

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    7 of the Worst Pandemics in Human History

    In many ways, the ongoing COVID-19 health crisis is unique. 

    It has paralyzed the way the world operates and has drastically changed our living habits and routines. Millions put their wellbeing on the frontlines to help the rest of us avoid sickness, and the worldwide system is on the verge of collapsing

    Humanity won’t be the same afterward. But as destructive as COVID-19 has been for our lifestyle, this pandemic is far from being the only one. 

    Pandemics, by definition, are diseases that spread across multiple continents and affect a significant number of people. They can happen within a timeframe, or they can be ongoing across decades, but their impact must be worldwide.  Continue reading

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    75 Strong Quotes About Love and Life

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    love quotes

    List of poignant Quotes about Love

    Finding the words to describe the love you feel for your future husband or wife does not always come easily. However, the following quotes, by world-renowned authors, poets and philosophers, prove the most earnest and simplest words are often the most poignant. The following is a comprehensive list of poignant quotes about Love, being in love and meaning of love:

    Continue reading

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  • article Astrology list

    The Trouble Each Zodiac Sign Gets Themselves Into

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    The Type of Trouble Each Zodiac Sign Gets Themselves Into

    Every sun sign has traits that are particularly blessings to the sign, but there are no saints in the zodiac. Every sun sign has traits and expressions that simply attract trouble. Here’s a guide to how each sign gets itself into trouble from time to time (or, more often than that.):

    Continue reading

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  • article health & wellness list Psychology

    9 Rare and Interesting Psychological Disorders

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    interesting psychological disorders

    Mental illness affects a significant swath of the population and fortunately much of it is treatable. Here is a list of strange and interesting mental disorders that you might not know about.

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  • article INFJ list mbti list

    6 Excellent Career Matches For INFJs

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    infj high paying careers

    infj careers

    For INFJs, the ideal career is one that empowers them to take excellent care of their family and spend plenty of time with them but also gives them a meaningful purpose in the context of society. They would like to be doing something that makes a difference and serves to ease some of the suffering in the world.

    INFJs are less motivated by status and glory and more by purpose and mission. INFJs are great team members, but would seek to work for themselves so they do not have to compromise or subordinate their values and principles to the auspices of bureaucratic policies. Here is a look at some INFJ career matches that happen to pay well.

    INFJ Career #1: Teacher
    median salary $58,030

    Although teachers in some areas don’t get payed as much as many people believe they should, high school teachers get payed pretty well typically. Being a great teacher requires a knack for clear communication and being able to inspire and engage their students. Teachers also play a counseling and mentorship role to their students which is something the INFJ is well suited for.

    INFJs, with their capacity to relate to others and identify with what they are experiencing is a valuable trait in a school teacher who may sometimes have to contend with hard to reach students that just need a little extra support from a person who cares. Obtaining tenure would be great as INFJs value job security highly plus teaching offers a variety of tasks to perform and a highly structured environment which are things INFJs have cited as among the most important characteristics of a work environment for them.

    INFJ Career #2: Dietitian and Nutritionist
    median salary $58,920

    As a dietitian or nutritionist, INFJs get to advise people and coach them in leading a healthy lifestyle. Dietitians specialize in devising an eating plan that facilitates a desired goal such as weight loss, managing an illness or just improving overall health and vitality. They can show people how to eat properly even when their budget is tighter than a pair of biker shorts.

    Many nutritionists and dietitians are employed by hospitals as part of supporting staff. INFJs enjoy work that allows them to help people in a personal and meaningful way and this career is likely to provide that. Plus it offers exceptional schedule flexibility which is a great feature for INFJs who don’t want careers that rob them of adequate quality time with their family. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 14% growth from 2016 to 2026 in this field.

    INFJ Career #3: Criminologist
    median salary $72,000

    A career as a criminologist is likely to appeal to an INFJ because it allows them to fight crime intellectually through research and psychological analysis. The field of criminology is part of the social sciences and involves the gathering of statistics and discerning of patterns in criminal activity and behavior for the purpose of combating it.

    Criminologists seek to find ways of preventing criminal behavior and reducing recidivism. Criminologists get to interview criminals to better understand their motives and mindset. They work with law officials and community officials in the development of better policies and to ensure the fair and humane treatment of felons under rule of law. INFJs may find this career to be interesting as it puts them in a rare and privileged position to learn and potentially find ways to reduce criminality and improve society as a whole.

    INFJ Career #4: Film/Art/Food Critic
    avg. salary $82,000 (film)

    A career as a critic would be a dream job for most people. Whether it’s film, art or food, we all partake and give our opinions freely and so the idea that someone could get payed for it seems absurd. Critics are trained to review finished works and provide a thoughtful analysis. A great film critic is someone who ought to be a true fan of the art with a special appreciation for film theory and typically has a bachelor’s degree in cinematography or journalism.

    INFJs enjoy sharing their thoughts and impressions about what they see. With their Ni, they are bound to pick up a lot of interesting and insightful observations about a film’s meaning and message. They would likely excel at interpreting the significance behind events and patterns within a cinematic story that might not be noticed by most viewers.

    INFJ Career #5: Psychologist
    median salary $95,710

    As psychologists, INFJs get to flex their natural psychoanalytical muscles in the facilitation of other people’s emotional development. Empathy is probably an indispensable tool for doing a psychologist’s work and INFJs are bonafide empaths who naturally observe and analyze human behavior.

    The insight and instincts they develop about people puts INFJ in a better position than most for understanding what makes people tick and how to help them. This career comes with an above average level of stress but excellent flexibility with regards to work schedule and work/life balance. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 9% growth in the fieled of psychology from 2016 to 2026 which is above average compared to other fields.

    INFJ Career #6: Human Resources Professional
    median salary: $106,910

    The INFJ personality has been dubbed “the advocate” and as a Human Resources manager or specialist, they can advocate on behalf of employees and facilitate a healthy and productive work environment. HR professionals are employed in almost every industry from government to private companies. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 9% increase in HR jobs from 2016 – 2026 which is about average in comparison with other fields.  The highest earning 10% of people working as an Human Resources Professional earn as much as $193,550 annually.

    HR People serve as the nexus between an organization’s executive management and it’s employees. They coordinate, oversee and conduct administrative functions such as hiring staff, advising staff, counseling staff and training staff. The diplomacy and tact which which INFJs communicate is a valuable asset to the Human Resource specialist. INFJs are generally very compassionate and will likely make a strong effort to be responsive to the needs of staff, uphold what is fair, and be respectful of everyone’s feelings. As such, the INFJ is well suited for the steward-like role that Human Resource professionals perform.

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  • article Astrology list

    56 Funny Quotes From People of Each Zodiac Sign

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    funny quotes by people of each zodiac sign
    funny quotes by people of each zodiac sign

    funny quotes by people of each zodiac sign

    [dropcap]P[/dropcap]eople say the darndest things, and who doesn’t love quotes that make us laugh? Here is an assortment of funny quotes made by people of each zodiac sign that will make you LOL.


    “By all means let’s be open-minded, but not so open-minded that our brains drop out.”
    – Richard Dawkins (Aries born March 26)

    “To succeed in life, you need three things: a wishbone, a backbone and a funny bone.”
    – Reba McEntire (Aries born March 28)

    “I have a memory like an elephant. I remember every elephant I’ve ever met.”
    – Herb Caen (Aries born April 3)

    “My friends who have babies can’t do anything. You can’t go out at night. Having a baby is like a DUI from the universe.”
    – Natasha Leggero (Aries born MArch 26)


    “The trouble with having an open mind, of course, is that people will insist on coming along and trying to put things in it.”
    – Terry Pratchett (Taurus born April 28)

    “A two-year-old is kind of like having a blender, but you don’t have a top for it.”
    – Jerry Seinfeld (Taurus born April 29)

    “That’s why they call it the American Dream, because you have to be asleep to believe it.”
    – George Carlin (Taurus born May 12)

    “Life is hard. After all, it kills you.”
    – Katharine Hepburn (Taurus born May 12)

    “There are lots of people who mistake their imagination for their memory.”
    – Josh Billings (Taurus born April 21)


    “Smoking kills. If you’re killed, you’ve lost a very important part of your life.”
    – Brooke Shields (Gemini born May 31)

    “I knew I was an unwanted baby when I saw that my bath toys were a toaster and a radio.”
    – Joan Rivers (Gemini born June 8)

    “I wanna make a jigsaw puzzle that’s 40,000 pieces. And when you finish it, it says ‘go outside.”
    – Demetri Martin (Gemini born May 25)

    “Do not take life too seriously. You will never get out of it alive.”
    – Elbert Hubbard (Gemini born June 19)

    “Telling an introvert to go to a party is like telling a saint to go to Hell.”
    ― Criss Jami, Killosophy (Gemini born May 29)

    They say marriages are made in Heaven. But so is thunder and lightning.
    – Clint Eastwood (Gemini born May 31)


    “We owe a lot to Thomas Edison – if it wasn’t for him, we’d be watching television by candlelight.”
    – Milton Berle (Cancer born July 12)

    “Housework can’t kill you, but why take a chance?”
    – Phyllis Diller (Cancer born July 17)

    “You can only be young once. But you can always be immature.”
    – Dave Barry (Cancer born July 3)

    “If women ran the world we wouldn’t have wars, just intense negotiations every 28 days.”
    – Robin Williams (Cancer born July 21)

    “Prejudice is a great time saver. You can form opinions without having to get the facts.”
    – E. B. White (Cancer born July 11)


    “Anytime you see a turtle up on top of a fence post, you know he had some help.”
    – Alex Haley (Leo born August 11)

    “I believe in rules. Sure I do. If there weren’t any rules, how could you break them?”
    – Leo Durocher (Leo born July 27)

    “A pessimist is a person who has had to listen to too many optimists.”
    – Don Marquis (Leo born July 29)

    “If you cannot get rid of the family skeleton, you may as well make it dance.”
    – George Bernard Shaw (Leo born July 26)

    “I feel like my career has been a series of glowing obituaries.”
    – Michael Ian Black (Leo born August 12)


    “If two wrongs don’t make a right, try three.”
    – Laurence J. Peter (Virgo born September 16)

    “As a child my family’s menu consisted of two choices: take it or leave it.”
    – Buddy Hackett (Virgo born August 31)

    “When I was growing up I always wanted to be someone. Now I realize I should have been more specific.”
    – Lily Tomlin (Virgo born September 1)

    “I buy expensive suits. They just look cheap on me.”
    – Warren Buffett (Virgo born August 30)

    “I have a hard time with interviews, because I’d rather hear about the interviewer.”
    – Maria Bamford (Virgo born September 3)


    “I was eating in a Chinese restaurant downtown. There was a dish called Mother and Child Reunion. It’s chicken and eggs. And I said, I gotta use that one.”  
    – Paul Simon (Libra born October 13)

    “I used to jog but the ice cubes kept falling out of my glass.”
    – David Lee Roth (Libra born October 10)

    “Every day people are straying away from the church and going back to God.”
    – Lenny Bruce (Libra born October 13)


    “Man cannot live by bread alone; he must have peanut butter.”
    – James A. Garfield (Scorpio born November 19)

    “Going to church doesn’t make you a Christian any more than going to a garage makes you an automobile.”
    – Billy Sunday (Scorpio born November 19)

    “I don’t believe in storks. I know they don’t deliver babies; they deliver pickles.”
    – Tracy Morgan (Scorpio born November 10)


    “Always remember that you are absolutely unique. Just like everyone else.”
    – Margaret Mead (Sagittarius born December 16)

    “A woman’s mind is cleaner than a man’s: She changes it more often.”
    – Oliver Herford (Sagittarius born December 3)

    “I believe that if life gives you lemons, you should make lemonade… And try to find somebody whose life has given them vodka, and have a party.”
    – Ron White (Sagittarius born December 18)

    “I haven’t spoken to my wife in years. I didn’t want to interrupt her.”
    – Rodney Dangerfield (Sagittarius born November 22)

    “What’s another word for Thesaurus?”
    – Steven Wright (Sagittarius born December 6)


    “Behind every great man is a woman rolling her eyes.”
    – Jim Carrey (Capricorn born January 17)

    “If at first you don’t succeed, find out if the loser gets anything.”
    – William Lyon Phelps (Capricorn born January 2)

    “Wine is constant proof that God loves us and loves to see us happy.”
    – Benjamin Franklin (Capricorn born January 17)

    “Roses are red, violets are blue, I’m schizophrenic, and so am I.”
    – Oscar Levant (Capricorn born December 27)

    “Do not worry about avoiding temptation. As you grow older it will avoid you.”
    – Joey Adams (Capricorn born January 9)


    “Happiness is having a large, loving, caring, close-knit family in another city.”
    – George Burns (Aquarius born January 20)

    “Society is like a stew. If you don’t stir it up every once in a while then a layer of scum floats to the top.”
    – Edward Abbey (Aquarius born January 29)

    “My wife has a slight impediment in her speech. Every now and then she stops to breathe.”
    – Jimmy Durante (Aquarius born February 10)

    “If you haven’t got anything nice to say about anybody, come sit next to me.”
    – Alice Roosevelt Longworth (Aquarius born February 12)

    “My grandmother started walking five miles a day when she was sixty. She’s ninety-seven now, and we don’t know where the hell she is.”
    – Ellen DeGeneres (Aquarius born January 26)


    “Laziness is nothing more than the habit of resting before you get tired.”
    – Jules Renard (Pisces born February 22)

    “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.”
    – Douglas Adams (Pisces born March 11)

    “I wear a necklace, cause I wanna know when I’m upside down.”
    – Mitch Hedberg (Pisces born February 24)

    “Older people shouldn’t eat health food, they need all the preservatives they can get.”
    – Robert Orben (Pisces born March 4)

    “We are all here on earth to help others; what on earth the others are here for I don’t know.”
    – W. H. Auden (Pisces born February 21)


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  • article list Strange

    10 Bizarre Standards of Beauty From Around the World

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    Western standards of beauty clearly have the most influence and prestige around the world. Aspects like leaness, well-proportioned bone structure, healthy hair, and physical fitness are some of the features coveted in western culture. The pinnacles of beauty are often personified in Hollywood’s leading actors and actresses, haute couture fashion models, and even certain high profile athletes. In other parts of the world however, there are other standards of beauty that exist that would seem bizarre or unthinkable to westerners. Here are 10 ideas of beauty valued in certain parts of the world. Continue reading

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    10 People Who Overdosed on Caffeine and Died

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    via medical daily

    [dropcap]C[/dropcap]affeine is a wondrous stimulant that lifts our mood, enhances our performance, and increases our focus and productivity. It helps get us through the mid-day doldrums. Today, energy products are more popular than ever and companies are always seeking new things to stuff caffeine into. People have many options now when seeking a caffeine buzz, but as the availability of caffeine increases, so does the potential of over-doing it. Excessive caffeine consumption has proven to be a real health concern not to be overlooked. In the past decade, we have seen a troubling trend of caffeine-related deaths. From 2005 – 2009, reported cases of caffeine overdose went up from 1,128 to 13,114. Here are 10 people who went too far to get their caffeine high.

    1. Michael Lee Bedford

    via vice news

    Michael Lee Bedford was a 23 year old British man who died tragically in 2010 after swallowing two spoonfuls of anhydrous caffeine powder and chased it with an energy drink. The caffeine content of this fatal cocktail was said to amount to 70 cans of red bull. The recommended dosage for the caffeine powder was only one-sixteenth of a teaspoon. Anhydrous caffeine powder is a bitter-tasting  and highly concentrated drug. The warning label on one brand advises not to exceed 200 mg in 24  hours (which is about 1/10th of a teaspoon). Bedford obtained the powder at a party from a friend and according to witness accounts, became ill 15 minutes after ingesting it. He vomitted blood and began sweating profusely. His speech was slurred and incoherent and EMTs were promptly called to the scene. Bedford’s death serves as a cautionary tale for the importance of always reading product warning labels.


    2. Anais Fournier

    via waynesboro record herald

    Anais was a 14 year old girl living in Hagerstown, Maryland. She enjoyed reading vampire novels, had a boyfriend, a twin brother and little sister. It was some time around Christmas in 2011 when Anais died after drinking two 24 ounce cannisters of monster energy drink within a 24 hour span. She drank one the night before while at the mall with friends and the other on the following afternoon while relaxing at home where she went into cardiac arrest. Doctors induced her into a coma in order to prevent swelling in her brain but six days later, Anais was declared dead. Official cause of death was “cardiac arrhythmia due to caffeine toxicity.” Her mother told reporters how she had admonished her daughter about consuming energy drinks. It is believed that Anais’ tragic death was likely due to a pre-exisiting heart condition known as mitral valve prolapse. MVP is fairly common and affects 1 in 20 Americans but her doctor did not consider her to be at risk. According to the National Institute of Health, “Much of the time, MVP doesn’t cause any problems.”


    3. Logan Steiner

    Just days before his Highschool graduation, Logan Steiner was found dead in his home in LaGrange, Ohio. He was  an honors student and prom king who in the days leading up to his death, was burning the candle at both ends trying to prepare for exam finals. In an effort to power himself through his academic demands, Logan turned to caffeine powder purchased from Amazon. On May 27, 2014, he was found by his brother lying unresponsive on the living room floor. The medical examiner cited the cause of death as “cardiac arrhythmia and seizure, due to acute caffeine toxicity due to excessive caffeine ingestion.” Pure caffeine powder is highly potent and it’s believed that Logan miscalculated the prescribed dosage and ingested a fatal amount. One teaspoon of powdered caffeine can contain 1,600 milligrams. As little as 10 grams of caffeine is enough to induce death, but this figure varies based on other factors such as a person’s caffeine sensitivity.


    4. Unamed Japanese Man

    via news on japan

    In 2014, a twenty-something year old man in Kyushu, Japan succumbed from caffeine intoxication. He became the first known case of caffeine-related death in his country. The man worked the night shift from midnight to dawn at a 24-hour gas station. After completing his shift, it is reported that he did not go to sleep until the following afternoon. It is believed that he consumed excessive amounts of caffeine over a period of years to combat sleepiness and fatigue. On the day he died, he began vomiting and was sent to the hospital where he was declared dead. His death was ruled as accidental and not due to any other pre-existing illness or abnormality. In addition to high concentrations of caffeine and alcohol found in his blood and urine, forensics also found in his stomach traces of what was possibly caffeine pills.


    5. Dustin Hood 

    In 2015, 19 year old Dustin Hood perished after binging on monster drinks. According to reports, Dustin drank 3 and a half 24-ounce canisters of monster energy drink within the span of 24 hours. He consumed roughly 735 mg of caffeine which is similar to that of 7 cups of coffee. He headed to a basketball court where he later collapsed from cardiac arrhythmia. Doctors attempted to resuscitate Dustin but he was declared dead at the hospital. It’s not known if Hood had any preexisting heart condition or other malady, that could have made him more susceptible to the cardiac arrhythmia that killed him. Dustin’s father has subsequently filed a lawsuit against monster seeking unspecified damages.


    6. Cara Reynolds

    the inquisitr

    Cara Reynolds was a 24 year old nurse living in the United Kingdom. Standing at 5’4″ with a size 10 physique, she was not an over-weight woman. Despite this, she desired to shed some pounds and purchased slimming pills from Amazon. She bought Forza raspberry ketones, a supplement that contained 250 mg of caffeine per serving – about as much as 4 cans of 8 oz. red bulls. Weeks after taking the pills, Cara  experienced frightening heart palpitations and told her father she would discontinue using the product for weight loss. On March 5, 2013 Cara suffered a seizure after overdosing on ketone pills, having ingested an amount of caffeine tantamount to 225 cans of red bull. She vomited until she fell unconscious and was rushed to the hospital where doctors made 44 attempts to resuscitate her. Cara eventually died from cardiovascular collapse. Cara’s recent split from her fiance is believed to have led to her fateful overdose.

    7. Honoré de Balzac

    Long before there was Red Bull or Monster, coffee was the primary source of caffeine, and a drug of choice for many artists and writers. Honoré de Balzac was one such writer and an avid fan of strong black coffee consumed on an empty stomach. Balzac was a 19th Century French novelist and playwright best noted for his magnum opus La Comédie humaine. He was enamored with this dark potion and unabashedly sung it’s praises. He wrote eloquently of it’s fantastic properties and effects on him and he was rumored to have chugged up to 50 cups a day. It is believed that his coffee habit was what led to his death which according to accounts from people close to him, was preceded by profuse sweating, extreme weakness, stomach cramps, headaches, nervous twitches, and hypertension. He died August 18, 1850 at the age of 51 from heart failure due to caffeine poisoning.


    8. John Jackson

    via mirror

    In May 2013, a 40 year old U.K man named John Jackson was discovered dead in his flat by his former partner. Medical examiners found that Jackson had 155mg of caffeine per liter of blood in his system. Just 10mg would have been considered an overdose. He had consumed an enormous amount of Hero energy mints purchased from a local shop prior to death. Each mint contained 80 mg of caffeine equivalent to that of an 8 oz. can of red bull. Jackson was a former painter and decorator and was reputed to have been a heavy drinker who suffered from cirrhosis of the liver. Due to the poor condition of his liver, his body would have been less able to filter toxins from the body and this could have contributed to his demise as coroners also found traces of other substances in his system.

    9. Gemma Ann Jones

    Gemma was a 26 year old woman who in 2013 was found dead in her home in Wales. She died from caffeine toxicity after swallowing 100 cups of espresso worth of caffeine pills. Gemma often texted messages to her friend Martin Lloyd expressing signs of depression. On November 18, Martin drove to Gemma’s home on a gut feeling that something was wrong after Gemma failed to return any of his phone messages. He found her car parked in the driveway but she did not answer the front door. After a obtaining a key from a neighbor, Martin entered the home to find Gemma laying on her side in bed with her face down on the pillow. There was a brown residue by her mouth. Martin was instructed to perform CPR by the emergency call support but by then Gemma was already dead. Toxicology tests showed she had ingested 50 – 100 tablets of EPH. EPH is a fat burner supplement containing ephedra. 79 tablets is considered to be lethal.

    10. James Stone

    James Stone was a healthy, responsible 19 year old from Wallingford Connecticut. Amid the economic downturn of the late 2000s, he was searching for work, putting in numerous applications like many others did. To fuel the intense job hunting effort, James took nearly 2 dozen No-Doz tablets within a short time span to stay awake and alert. Each tablet contained around 200 mg of caffeine and the amount he ingested was equal to roughly 48 cups of coffee. On November 27, 2006, James went to the bathroom and collapsed from a heart attack. The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Connecticut deemed the heart attack to have been brought on by “caffeine toxicity”. Since James’ death, his parents have sought to have better warning labels featured on caffeine products. “I’m not looking for any money or any sympathy,” James Stone Sr. said. “I just don’t think it’s right that people don’t know that this kind of thing can happen.”


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  • article list Psychology

    10 Bizarre Therapies in Mental Illness Treatment History

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    image via

    Lucky for us, we live in a time where medicine and science have made great strides in the development of effective treatments to diseases that were once fatal. Nowadays, many diseases and disorders are alleviated with pills, injections or ointments. Those that require surgical procedures are carried out with lower risk than ever before.

    In the past however, many of the treatments utilized by medical physicians were almost as harmful as the condition they were meant to cure. These procedures were often highly invasive and ineffective and many patients died as a result of them. Methods in the psychiatric field were particularly bizarre and often exhibited a cruel lack of regard for the mentally ill. Many unfortunate patients were left disfigured or had their personalities irreversibly altered as a result of the procedures undergone and the benefits were often nominal or nil. Here are some bizarre treatments that have been employed to treat mental illness in the past.

    10. Trephination



    Also known as trepanning, trephination was an ancient practice dating way back as early as the Mesolithic era. It was a procedure whereby a hole was bored into the skull of patients suffering from schizophrenia, epileptic seizures or migraines. It was believed that evil spirits thought to be responsible for abnormal behavior and mental disturbances could be released through the cranial opening. The surgery was achieved using augurs and saws and was likely painful due to the absence of modern anesthesia. The removed portion of bone was replaced shortly after but often healed with some distortion in the skull’s shape and contour.

    9. Fever Therapy

    image via

    image via

    It sounds counter-intuitive but one doctor found that the best weapon against a malady is another malady. In the late 1800s, fever therapy (also known as pyrotherapy) was all the rage after it successfully alleviated the symptoms of patients suffering from neurosyphilis also known as general paresis of the insane (GPI). The treatment was pioneered by Viennese psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Juaregg who won a Nobel Prize in 1927 for “curing” a patient’s syphilis-caused psychosis by artificially inducing them with fever. The treatment entailed the elevation of the patient’s body temperature by injecting them with malaria-infected blood taken from another person. At that time, blood groups were only recently discovered and little consideration was given to it when transfusing blood between patients. Many doctors began adopting this radical and seemingly effective treatment until Penicillin came along in the mid 1940s. In the 1930s, machines were developed that could reproduce the same thermogenic effects of fever therapy without subjecting patients to undue illness. Alternate forms of pyrotherapy employ the use of hot baths and electric blankets to raise temperature.

    8. Rotational Therapy

    image via

    image via

    Before Charles Darwin, there was his grandfather Erasmus Darwin. Erasmus was a physician, scientist and philosopher although he was reputedly not very good at any one of those things. He believed that sleep cured illness and therefore saw spinning around as an effective means of inducing therapeutic sleep. His idea was largely dismissed but was later employed by Dr. Benjamin Rush as a treatment for mental illness. Rush, who was one of the original signatories of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, believed that mental illness was a symptom of brain congestion and he held the notion that spinning around would dislodge brain mucous like a centrifuge and produce mental clarity. Of course, all that spinning just left them dizzy, dazed and confused.

    7.  Lobotomy

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    The Lobotomy (also known as leucotomy) has been a controversial procedure from it’s very inception due to the disproportion of benefits and drawbacks. The procedure was pioneered by Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz who utilized it in the treatment of various psychoses and problematic behaviors. The procedure was conducted by inserting an ice pick through the eye sockets to scrape away portions of the brain’s pre-frontal cortex to disrupt neuro-circuitry associated with unwanted symptoms. While the operation appeared to improve patient’s symptoms, it also came at the expense of their intellect and personality. Some patients died as a result of the operation either due to post-surgery complications or suicide. Others were left a shell of their former selves with severe mental impairments and somatic disabilities such as loss of bowel control. In spite of this, Moniz’s work earned him a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine  in 1949. In the U.S., nearly 19,000 people have been lobotomized before antipsychotic medication supplanted it.

    6. Bloodletting and Purging

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    Although this treatment gained prominence in the Western world during the 1600s, it actually originated in ancient Greek medicine. The prominent Greek physician Claudius Galen regarded an imbalance of the humors as the source of poor health and physical malady. English physician Thomas Willis later used Galen’s work as a basis for his approach to treating mentally ill patients. He argued that “an internal biochemical relationship was responsible for mental disorders. He believed bleeding, purging, and even vomiting could help correct the humor imbalances and aid in healing physical and mental illness. In addition to mental illness, these treatments were also used to treat various other diseases like diabetes, asthma, cancer, cholera, and smallpox.

    5. Hydrotherapy

    image via

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    During the early 20th century, water-based methods became popular in treating mental illness. It was favored due to it’s simplicity and effectiveness in treating patients with insomnia and manic depressive symptoms. Patients were subjected to methods such as cold plunges, being sprayed or hosed down with hot and cold water jets or being confined to prolonged baths that lasted from hours to several days interspersed with periodic bathroom breaks. Clinicians observed the therapeutic effects of varying temperatures on the body and it’s nervous system. It was believed that various properties of water could be used stimulate circulation and improve symptoms accompanying certain diseases.

    4. Mesmerism

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    The term “mersmerize” comes from an Austrian physician named Franz Anton Mesmer. Mesmer believed that physical and mental illness were the result of magnetic imbalances in the body. He called these forces “animal magnetism” and was convinced that restoring it’s equilibrium would alleviate health problems. Mesmer administered iron medication to patients and then passed magnets over their body. He found that patients responded positively to his unconventional treatment and later he abandoned using the magnets altogether once he saw that he could achieve the same affects without them. What he did not realize however, was that his patients were only psychologically responding to the power of suggestion and the “belief” that his treatment was working. Mesmer’s methods were dismissed as a quackery by the medical community and he later moved to Paris where he continued to practice his therapy on large groups of people. His work paved the way to the development of hypnotism.

    3. Metrazol Shock Therapy

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    In the 1930s, a pathologist named Ladislas von Meduna observed that patients who experienced epileptic seizures would afterward become calmer. This led him to test and see if the same effect could be achieved in patients suffering from schizophrenia. After experimenting with various drugs such as strychnine and absinthe, the physician eventually found metrazol to be an effective solution. Metrazol stimulated the respiratory and circulatory systems and triggered seizures. Clinical reports indicate that the treatment appeared to improve symptoms in nearly half of patients. However, many also suffered vertebral fractures, myocardial damage and pulmonary tuberculosis as a result of treatment. Researchers later realized the therapy was actually not all that effective and it was barred in 1982 by the FDA. This form of seizure therapy was a precursor to electric shocks and ECT.

    2. Tooth Extractions

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    At the turn of the 20th century, the advancements in medicine generated an enthusiasm that may have led medical professionals to get a bit ahead of themselves. A New Jersey psychiatrist named Henry Cotton developed the idea that mental illnesses of all kinds were the result of untreated infections in other parts of the body. He introduced the practice of “surgical bacteriology” where he proceeded to remove body parts such as teeth, spleens, tonsils, ovaries and other organs believed to harbor infection. Due to the absence of antibiotics, many patients died ironically from post-operative infection. Cotton reported high success rates but it is believed that his results were skewed. In spite of the high fatality outcomes of his operations, he was still largely admired by the public and lauded for his work.

    1. Insulin Shock Therapy

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    Insulin Shock therapy was used extensively throughout the 1940s and 50s as a treatment for Schizophrenia. The practice involved injecting insulin into patients to induce coma. This was done multiple times until symptoms appeared to go into remission. It was first introduced by Manfred Sakel, an Austrian-American psychiatrist who began using the treatment in low sub-coma doses to treat drug addicts and psychopaths. With Schizophrenics, heavier doses were administered 6 days a week over the course of 2 months to 2 years. Dosages were increased gradually up to 100-450 units and clinics that used the treatment employed their own protocols as there were no standardized guidelines in place. Complications caused by treatment included hypoglycemia, convulsions, restlessness, brain damage, obesity and death. By the 1970s, the use of Insulin Shock therapy had fallen out of vogue after it was debunked as ineffective and too dangerous.
















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    10 Odd Things Donald Trump Has Said and Done

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    Whether you are for him or against him, most would agree that Donald Trump is an unusual character with the traits of a good entrepreneur. His unconventional and polarizing rhetoric has earned him popularity but also a reputation wrought with controversy and political incorrectness. He says and does a lot of risky things but as we often see, it tends to work in his favor.

    10. He Insisted It’s an Advantage Being A Black Man

    In an interview from 1989, Trump has stated that he believed a well educated black man actually has an edge in the job market today. He tells the interviewer “I’ve said on occasion, even about myself, if I were starting off today I would love to be a well-educated black because I really believe they do have an actual advantage today.”

    Trump’s remark was likely in reference to affirmative action laws that many would argue forces businesses to seek diversity for diversity’s sake rather than the strength of merit alone. Actor and director Spike Lee later slammed Trump’s comments as “garbage” and “craziness.”

    9. He likes to comment on his daughter’s anatomy.

    In 1994, Donald and his then wife Marla Maples appeared on an episode of “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous”. When host Robin Leach, asked about the qualities Trump’s newborn daughter Tiffany shared with her parents, Trump responded saying “She’s a very beautiful baby, she’s got Marla’s legs. We don’t know whether or not *puts hands on his chest to indicate breasts* she’s got this part yet, but time will tell.”

    Trump has caught more attention for his off-color commentary about daughter Ivanka in another TV appearance. When asked whether his daughter would ever consider posing for Playboy magazine, he infamously replied, “I don’t think Ivanka would do that inside the magazine, although she does have a very nice figure. I’ve said that if Ivanka weren’t my daughter, perhaps, I would be dating her.”


    8. He’s a Germaphobe


    No, he’s not scared of Germans (presumably). But he does apparently have an abiding fear of getting his hands dirty. In his 1997 book, “The Art of the Comeback,” he wrote that shaking hands is “one of the curses of American society. … I happen to be a clean hands freak. I feel much better after I thoroughly wash my hands, which I do as much as possible.”

    His aversion to germs might explain why he doesn’t own any known pets. He could be the first POTUS in 150 years not to have one in the White House.

    7. He sends Pictures of his Hands to people.


    Many would recall the low brow, school-yard insults that were exchanged between Trump and other incumbents at the RNC debates. Marco Rubio’s remarks about Trump’s hand size in particular seemed to have struck a nerve with the Donald. Defending the magnitude of his meathooks is not new to Trump however. Apparently he has been trying to convince an editor at Vanity Fair of his hand girth for the last 25 years.

    Graydon Carter is a journalist who claimed that after writing an article in which he called Trump a “short-fingered vulgarian,” began receiving envelopes in the mail containing photos of Trump with his hands circled in gold sharpie. Also written in gold Sharpie: ‘See, not so short!’ Carter called it “a valiant effort to highlight the length of his fingers.”

    6. Trump Views Excercise As A Waste of Energy


    It might surprise you to know that Trump in his hayday was actually quite athletic. At some point however, Trump apparently decided that athletics and exercise were not a worthwhile use of his time.

    In a book titled “Trump Revealed”, Washington Post writers Michael Kranish and Marc Fisher claimed that Trump thought exercise permanently sapped him of energy. “Trump believed the human body was like a battery, with a finite amount of energy, which exercise only depleted. So he didn’t work out”. Trump reportedly even told a colleague training for an Iron man Triathalon “You are going to die young because of this.”

    5. He’s A Bit Hypocritical About Alcohol.

    Donald Trump has publicly stated that he doesn’t drink, smoke or do drugs and has even put out a message to kids enjoining them to do the same. In interviews he has disclosed that his late brother’s struggle with alcohol heavily influenced his reluctance to use drugs.

    This however, didn’t stop him from trying to profit from those who do. In 2006, Trump launched his own brand of spirit called Trump Vodka with the tagline “success distilled”. His foray into the alcohol industry was not a success though, and the line was discontinued in 2011.  Trump has admitted to the irony of his involvement in the alcohol business telling an interviewer in 2005 “I sort of hated doing it,” and proposed he would “…donate any and all money that I make from alcoholic beverages to Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) [sic]”.


    4. He Seems to Function on Very Little Sleep

    via thedailybeast

    During the 2016 presidential campaign, Trump has made sport of his political competitors with comical insults that often framed them in a pitiable light. Trump would also brag what little sleep he needed (anywhere from 90 minutes to 4 hours according to him) and regularly made a point of comparing his energetic pep and activity levels with that of the other presidential hopefuls. On the campaign trail he once said to a crowd in Illinois, “You know, I’m not a big sleeper. I like three hours, four hours, I toss, I turn, I beep-de-beep, I want to find out what’s going on.”

    If what he is claiming is true, it may be he is of a rare breed of individuals who possess the “efficient sleeper” gene. People who carry it seem to function perfectly on very little sleep without detriment to their health. This may be one of the common character traits of successful entrepreneurs.

    3. He’s Repulsed By Bodily Functions

    During a 2011 deposition, Trump reportedly called a lawyer “disgusting” after she began milking herself in the courtroom (using a breast pump). According to her, Trump immediately lost his bearing, “He got up, his face got red, he shook his finger at me and he screamed, ‘You’re disgusting, you’re disgusting,’ and he ran out of there.”

    Trump’s lactation-intolerance was just a glimpse of his apparently greater distaste for bodily discharge. He called Hillary Clinton’s use of the bathroom “disgusting”, Chris Cristie’s eating habits “disgusting”, Marco Rubio’s fop sweat “disgusting”. At home, he and his wife Melania use separate but equal bathrooms.


    2. He Doesn’t Feel His Town’s Big Enough for Two Trumps

    via hollywoodreporter

    There is little dispute as to the importance of the “Trump” name in the Donald’s business which is largely built on branding. Especially since Trump has earned much of his money through licensing.

    So in 1984 when two South African developers named Eddie and Jules Trump began purchasing real estate around NYC as The Trump Group, Donald saw this as an infringement that could not be allowed to stand. He sought legal action against them but lost the case. He did however succeed in having their trademark revoked in 1988.

    That same year, Trump tried to bring down the legal hammer once again on a different company, who in this case was selling business cards dubbed “Trump Cards”. The two parties eventually struck a deal they were happy with. In exchange for royalties and the rights to the trademark, the company could continue selling the cards and Trump agreed to endorse them.


    1. Trump Believes Asbestos Would Have Saved The Twin Towers


    Since the 1970s, the use of asbestos and asbestos-containing products has been carefully regulated due to it’s carcinogenic health risks. It was once added to flame-retardant sprays used to insulate steel building materials.  Alternative flame-proofing materials are available but in Trump’s opinion,
    asbestos is “the greatest fire-proofing material ever used.”

    In 2012 he tweeted, “If we didn’t remove incredibly powerful fire retardant asbestos & replace it with junk that doesn’t work, the World Trade Center would never have burned down.” He has even gone so far as claiming that the hysteria over asbestos has been propaganda generated by the mafia, stating that it was often mob-related companies that would handle the asbestos removal.


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    10 Killers Who Didn’t Eat Meat

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    “Murder” by Spirit-of-Dusk via deviantart

    Many murderers are reviled for their depravity and brutality. Such individuals are often incapable of feeling compassion or empathy for their victims and so then it may seem paradoxical that some killers would be opposed to the consumption of meat. Whether for ethical or health reasons these 10 killers abstained from eating dead animals yet had no reservations about slaughtering humans.

    10. William MacDonald


    MacDonald was a vegetarian who loved classical music and is credited as Australia’s first true serial killer. During the 1960s he terrorized the city of Sydney and was dubbed the “Sydney Mutilator” drawing comparisons to Jack the Ripper due to the gruesome manner in which he killed his victims. He targeted riffraffs and wastrels who he would lure with alcohol and then subsequently slaughtered them. He murdered and mutilated 4 men with a hunting knife, taking one victim’s genitals home in a paper bag before throwing them off the Harbor Bridge. He was eventually caught, convicted and sentenced to life. It was later found that MacDonald was raped by a corporal while he was in the military and as a teen had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He became eligible for release from jail but declined. He expressed no desire to leave, saying he “wouldn’t last five minutes”


    9. Volkert Van der Graaf

    Volkert Van der Graaf

    via de telegraaf

    Van der Graaf was a Dutch vegan animal rights campaigner who in May 2002, assassinated anti-immigration politician Pim Fortuyn as he was heading for his car. Van der Graaf was a passionate activist who fought against factory farming and worked with the Environment Offensive, a group aimed at “stopping the expansion of factory farming”. As a teen he said his parents would not let him give up meat, but he later became a vegan. His alleged reason for killing Fortuyn was to stop him from exploiting Muslims as “scapegoats”. He viewed Fortuyn as a threat to those groups, comparing his rise to that of Nazism in Germany in the 1930s. At his trial, relatives of the slain politician appeared in court wearing fur coats as a show of spite against Van der Graaf.

    8. Adolf Hitler


    Under Hitler’s reign, millions of people were killed and if some reports are to be believed, the Nazi regime was an institution with paradoxical ethics. On the one hand were the horrors of Auschiwitz where cruel and inhumane experiments were conducted on Jewish prisoners  by evil scientists such as the infamous Josef Mengele. On the other hand was the irony of Nazi animal rights advocacy. Adolf Hitler himself is alleged to have been a vegetarian (albeit not a strict one) with a fondness for animals particularly that of ravens, wolves and dogs. It has been reported that he believed meat-consumption was a factor in societal decline. In his 1938 autobiography, Mein Kampf, he recounts how, even when food was scarce, he would share his paltry rations with mice. When the Nazi Party came to power in 1933, they instituted numerous animal protection laws. People could be jailed for mistreating animals which included such acts as docking the ears and tails of dogs without anesthesia, and invasive animal research. The Nazis apparently had compassion even for the suffering of lobsters in restaurants.


    7. Lynette Fromme

    lynette fromme


    Lynette Fromme was a would be assassin and member of the infamous “Manson Family” cult. Although she did not succeed, in 1975 Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme was dead set on assassinating then president Gerald Ford. She pulled out a colt .45 caliber semi-automatic pistol during an event in Sacramento at which the president appeared but she was quickly subdued by intervening Secret Service agents. She was convicted and sentenced to life for her assassination attempt but was released on parole in 2009. Audio tapes of her pretrial psychiatric examination have been released that reveal her to be a herbivore among other things. When asked about her diet she replied, “Vegetables, yeah, I’m a vegetarian. I try and avoid additives, sugar; I ordinarily don’t eat any sugar, starch.”

    6. Scott Dyleski


    In October 2005, Scott Dyleski murdered his neighbor Pamela Vitale who was the wife of prominent lawyer Daniel Horowitz. Dyleski was only 16 years old when he bludgeoned Vitale to death in her home while she was surfing the web. During his trial he was impassive and un-emotive making no admission of guilt nor any disclosure of details of his motives. He was convicted of first degree murder and was served the max sentence of life without parole being ineligible for the death penalty on account of his age. In spite of his cold demeanor, witnesses at his trial, stated that Dyleski was a gentle vegan kid who also had a fascination with Goth music and serial killers.

    5. Chandrakant Jha


    In India during the late 90s, Chandrakant Jha would house young men in his home only to murder them often under petty pretenses such as lying or being non-vegetarian. He would reportedly pamper them like his own children and then kill them at the slightest provocation. Jha would scatter his victims mutilated limbs throughout Delhi which he did to taunt police officials. He was caught in 1998 and served time behind bars only to be released in 2002 for lack of evidence. He continued to kill 6 others before he was caught again. He reportedly had a  “death ritual” where around 8pm he would tie his victim’s hands on the pretext of punishing him and then strangle them using a nunchaku. Jha was eventually captured and sent to the gallows for his crimes.

    4. Sheila Graham-Trott

    via abcnews.go

    Sheila Graham-Trott  was found guilty of first degree murder in the 2010 killing of Kelly Brennan, her former friend and estranged husband’s lover. 24 hours after going missing, Kelly Brennan’s body was found dumped in the bushes with signs of head trauma consistent with a hammer. Officials were led to her body after Sheila made a bizarre 911 call reporting she was seeing ‘visions’ of her friend’s face in the dark. The odd claim was enough to convince prosecutors that Sheila Graham-Trott was culpable. Perhaps as an attempt to convey the gentleness of her daughter, Graham-Trott’s mother expressed that Sheila has been a vegetarian since ninth grade because her bus stop was near an abattoir.

    3. Sonia Jacobs


    Sonia Jacobs was a 28-year-old ‘vegetarian hippie’ when she was arrested along with her husband and a 3rd man following a 1976 shootout in which two policemen were killed. Jacobs and her husband Jesse Tafero were passengers in a car driven by Walter Rhodes when the incident occurred. The 3 were convicted in the murders and spent 15 years on death row before the driver made a confession following the execution of Jesse Tafero in 1990. Rhodes made an admission that exculpated Jacobs of guilt and she was released in 1992. She reunited with her son and daughter and later remarried to an Irishman who was also released from prison under similar circumstances.

    2. John Linley Frazier


    John Linley Frazier was a mass murderer dubbed “the killer prophet”. In 1970 he murdered ophthalmologist Victor Ohta, his wife, two sons and a secretary and subsequently burned down the house they were in while he in a drug-induced psychosis. Frazier was vegetarian hippie who collected guns and did drugs and it is believed his use of LSD contributed to the string of erratic behavior leading up to the murders. He claimed to hear voices that compelled him to act as an agent of god. He was convicted and sentenced to death by lethal gas but the sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment.

    1. Adam Lanza


    In December 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 20 children at the Sandy Hook elementary school in Newton, Connecticut. He also murdered 6 adult staff members as well as his mother before committing suicide. He is said to have been fascinated with chimpanzees because of their capacity for empathy, but could show little or none himself. Adam reportedly had mental disorders including obsessive-compulsive behaviors such as changing his socks 20 times a day and using tissues to open doors for fear of touching knobs with his bare hands. Witnesses have reported that Adam was a vegan who drank water “with a certain amount of salt added to it.” He reportedly had no friends or associates and never used drugs or alcohol. He would write stories and poems that would at turns terrify and move his listeners to tears. In an email to investigators, an unnamed witness disclosed that “Emotion wasn’t something expressed in particularly verbose or grandiose fashion but it was expressed. He was capable of laughing, smiling and making jokes though always in a dry fashion.”

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    The Opposing Role of Each Myers Briggs Type

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    The Opposing Role

    The opposing role is the 5th function and the first shadow function in the Beebe model’s extended 8-function stack. This function’s role manifests as a reaction towards the ego and especially its heroic dominant perspective when being opposed or obstructed. Obstruction might also be when the ego’s connection with the anima (or inferior function) is obstructed. This function refuses to “play” and join in whatever is going on at the time. Your 5th function is used mainly as a defense and manifests as unfriendly, rude and uncooperative. 

    “The opposing personality is a primary resource of defense, a part of us that tends to lurch forward first when we feel our heroic superior function and it’s most cherished values to be under attack”. (p132)  It is “oppositional, paranoid, passive-aggressive and avoidant”, (p. 41, 58, 132) and also ‘easy to project onto others, especially a person of the opposite sex”. “Projecting the opposing personality will cause a man to see the woman in a negative or troublesome light as she seems to embody the man’s own antagonistic traits”

    It might be easy for us to develop skill in the process that plays this role, but we are likely to be more narrow in our application of this skill, and it will likely take more energy to use it extensively. In its positive aspect, it provides a shadow or depth to our leading role process, backing it up and enabling us to be more persistent in pursuit of our goals.

    Opposing Role: Extroverted Thinking


    Ti Ne Si Fe Te Ni Se Fi


    Ti Se Ni Fe Te Si Ne Fi


    • Tries to beat others at their logic using their own principles.
    • Tries to promote their frameworks as being the most efficient, and in some way get them implemented.
    • Think that agreed upon logical rules are stupid and a waste of time.
    • Spunky Te types might be sexy.
    • Recognizing the need for external efficiency.
    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about the way the environment is organized, and other mechanical things.
    • Can become critical, disgruntled with disorder, illogic, or inefficiency.
    • Can become stubborn about organizing things and insist on a systematic approach.
    • Lashes out if others criticize their logic with emotional arguments, and make subjective arguments.
    • Spend unnecessary time establishing order, planning, and misguide themselves and others in the process.
    • “The environment should be ordered in a way that makes sense to me”.
    • Orders the external world according to what makes sense to the “hero” (dominant function). Opposes those who order it differently.
    • Will back up the ego’s internal technical model of how things should be, and thus when the principles are violated, it will be “stubborn” about how things are technically organized.

    Opposing Role: Extroverted Intuition


    Ni Te Fi Se Ne Ti Fe Si


    Ni Fe Ti Se Ne Fi Te Si


    • Turns toward external stimuli to back up their internal perceptions.
    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about emergent meanings and hypothetical possibilities.
    • Probably think that multiple possibilities are absurd. The patterns point to one right conclusion.
    • Over-reading between the lines, often misinterpreting someone’s actions and seeing negative intentions where there are none.
    • Interpret situations in a naive way, inferring malice where none exists.
    • Oblivious to unspoken potentials and get off track with inferences and interconnections.
    • Stubborn about responding to emerging information and locking on to a hidden meaning.
    • Veers away from likely outcomes according to internalized conceptual patterns and merges with the objects themselves, using their open, multiple meanings or possibilities to toss out at others, perhaps sarcastically.

    Opposing Role: Introverted Intuition


    Ne Ti Fe Si Ni Te Fi Se


    Ne Fi Te Si Ni Fe Ti Se


    • Feel obstructed by or become stubborn about their perceptions of unconscious images and meanings.
    • Taking only one possibility derived individually instead of the multitudes from the environment, is stupid and limiting.
    • Will “lock on” to an internal negative perception of what will happen.
    • Make dire predictions with certainty and mistake deep symbolism as a guidepost for life.
    • Envision how something will play out and ignore signs that it won’t work out, foreseeing disaster or nothing at all.
    • Stubborn about perceptions of how the future will be, and lock onto a vision that won’t happen.
    • Indulge negative thoughts of how events will unfold.

     Opposing Role: Introverted Thinking


    Te Ni Se Fi Ti Ne Si Fe


    Te Si Ne Fi Ti Se Ni Fe


    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about individually understood technical principles and robotically following them.
    • Breaking things down into [individually assessed] trivial detail is stupid, inefficient and a waste of time.
    • Steps aside from the means to the end of implementing efficiency, to referencing the inherent “universal” principles, explaining why this is the way it should be, or why others should understand or act accordingly.
    • May make statements or believe in ideas that are contradictory and illogical.
    • Caught up in pointing out others’ inconsistencies, with a dogmatic tendency to adhere to one principle rather than seeing its distinctions.
    • Can be stubborn about the models and principles they’ve adopted, categorising everything simplistically and robotically following the principles.
    • Prefer not to articulate operating principles and can get stuck in models and frameworks they have learned or adapted.

    Opposing Role: Extroverted Feeling


    Fi Ne Si Te Fe Ni Se Ti


    Fi Se Ni Te Fe Si Ne Ti


    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about environmental [human] group standards.
    • Think that agreed upon ethics do not get to the real needs of people; affect them negatively, etc.
    • Will appeal to external societal values to defend personal valuations.
    • Over-address others’ concerns and feel disappointment over a false sense of closeness.
    • Convinced others don’t like, appreciate, or need them, and over-accommodate others needs.
    • Stubborn about how others affect them and resist being pulled into being responsible for others feelings and choices.
    • Can be quite critical and disgruntled about the expectations of the group to the point of rebellion and disengaging.

     Opposing Role: Introverted Feeling


    Fe Ni Se Ti Fi Ne Si Te


    Fe Si Ne Ti Fi Se Ni Te
    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about individual personal values.
    • Tailoring everything to individual personal needs is too much trouble.
    • Retreats to their own personal values (as a defense), which they normally adapt to accommodate others.
    • Inverts their value system erecting a hard stiff wall of what is important and desired to themselves personally.
    • Rigidly following a belief system or what they personally think is important, with accompanying childish and/or selfish behavior.
    • Spend money and time on things that are unimportant and care little about the value of things.
    • Be stubborn about values as they crusade for a particular cause, turning off people instead of mobilizing them.
    • Dwell on conflicts in beliefs, being critical, and locking into their desires by bulldozing others.

    Opposing Role: Extroverted Sensing


    Si Te Fi Ne Se Ti Fe Ni


    Si Fe Ti Ne Se Fi Te Ni
    • Feel obstructed in or become stubborn about tangible/practical reality.
    • Think that living in the moment is irresponsible. (However, some who do it are sexy).
    • Focus is shifted to current, emergent reality to backup past knowledge.
    • Stubborn about going on impulse and insist that they have an accurate read of the situation.
    • Excessively seek physical stimulation or following the urge to do nothing; zero in on isolated details, acting impulsively on them.
    • Dwell on the perceived “realities” of a situation; act highly impulsively.
    • Go on about “facts,” blocking others’ proposed actions, or get caught up in the moment and engage in impulsive behavior.

    Opposing Role: Introverted Sensing


    Se Ti Fe Ni Si Te Fi Ne


    Se Fi Te Ni Si Fe Ti Ne


    • Feel obstructed by or become stubborn about their perceptions of how things once were.
    • Memorized rules and such are stupid and limiting of freedom.
    • The past (stored tangible data) is used as a reference to how it links to the present, which they will stubbornly cling to.
    • Can become stubborn about their perception of the past and fixated on its relation to the present.
    • Prefer not to focus on the past but can be quite critical of past performances and overuse negative experiences to inform decisions.
    • Cling to what they are used to; repeat themselves in ritualistic fashion.
    • Get stuck in impressions of how things were and resist change; waste time reviewing the impact of the past.

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    7 Of The Most Expensive Insurance Payouts Ever

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    [dropcap]A[/dropcap]ccidents happen, and they often come at a hefty cost. Hurricanes, car accidents, slip and falls… all of these can result in extensive and expensive damage which is why it is important to have insurance coverage to help foot the bill. Some insurance payouts are staggering in their magnitude so here is a list of other disasters that cost insurance companies dearly.

    #7. Lucky Bean


    Rowan Atkinson is an English actor best known for his comical role as Mr. Bean. In the U.K., Atkinson set a record for the largest insurance claim ever recorded after crashing his McLaren F1 automobile . In August 2011, the actor lost control while driving on an icy English road near Peterborough. Luckily, Atkinson walked away with only minor injuries but his 240 mph supercar spent more than a year under repair. The accident cost his auto insurance for a hefty £900,000 which equates to roughly $957,780 USD. The amount exceeded the previous U.K. insurance claim record by nearly 3 times. Since then, Atkinson’s auto insurances quotes will likely be sky high.

    #6. He Broke A Leg, now He’s Set For Life


    In Virginia, a claimant slipped on ice and skated away with millions. In 2012, a man sustained multiple broken bones after slipping in the walkway outside his apartment residence. Further complications stemming from both the injury and a preexisting condition threatened the amputation of his lower leg. In the end, a personal injury lawyer in Virginia was able to win the claimant a structured settlement of $7.75 million on account of the property owner’s lack of snow and ice maintenance as required by law. It’s a heavy price to pay, no bones about it.

    #5. Art Theft


    In 1994, thieves stole three paintings from the Schirn Kunsthalle art gallery in Frankfurt, Germany. Two of the paintings were by artist, J.M.W Turner and had been loaned from the Tate gallery in London. These pieces were insured for $18 million each and the Tate museum received $36 million in compensation in exchange for the ownership rights to the paintings. The paintings were later recovered, and the museum bought back the ownership rights.

    While you may not own a priceless work of art or antique, your personal belongings still have value.  Homeowners and renters insurance policies include a provision for protecting your possessions. You will receive a payout if the items are lost, stolen, or destroyed during a natural disaster. The amount of personal belongings coverage will vary depending upon the policy. Typically, homeowners insurance will cover an amount equal to half of the value of the home structure. Renters insurance coverage will vary. If you have an expensive piece of personal property, you may want to have a clause added to your policy for additional protection.

    #4. An Easy Target


    Cyber insurance is not something that most of us would necessarily need or think of needing. For businesses that store and manage data about their customers such as addresses and credit card numbers, cyber insurance or technology professional liability insurance is an imperative.

    In early 2014, retail giant Target announced their data had been breached and the sensitive information of nearly 70 million customers had been stolen from their servers. The cyber theft cost the company $61 million and their insurance carrier was able to cover $44 million of those expenses. If you are concerned about someone stealing from you, then consider purchasing bond insurance. First-party bonds protect your business against employee theft. Third-party bonds will help to protect your clients’ possessions and theft by temporary employees.

    #3. Paul Walker


    When one of the lead actors dies during the production of a film, the consequences can be very costly. In November 2013, actor Paul Walker died in a fatal car crash just moments after leaving a charity event in Valencia, California. Filming for his latest movie ‘Furious 7’ was still unfinished at the time and Walker’s untimely death left studio execs with a delicate problem. Universal Pictures filed a claim for $50 million which is said to be unprecedented in the way of Hollywood insurance claims. This was to cover the expenses involved in editing, like CGI “face-replacement technology” and script revisions. It is not known if the studio has received payment for their claim as of early 2015.

    #2. 9/11 Tragedy


    September 11, 2001 will forever live in infamy not only for it’s death toll but for the magnitude of money it cost in damages. The lives of nearly 3,000 people ended in the wake of this senseless tragedy and it is regarded as the most expensive incident in insurance history. The total cost reached a towering sum of $40 billion which was payed out for losses including business interruption, vehicle and property damage, life insurance, liability insurance, aviation liability and workers compensation. Congress created a $7 billion fund to compensate 5,562 family members of the fallen. Payments went to widows and widowers, children and parents.

    #1. Hurricane Katrina


    In 2005, the Gulf of Mexico was hit by a devastating hurricane trifecta in which more than 4,000 people perished. In the devastating aftermath following Katrina, Rita and Wilma, New Orleans was flooded and the combined damages left behind amounted to approximately $130 billion in insurance claims covered under ‘an act of God’. The enormous estimate comes from the costs of damage to homes and businesses as a result of the storms, as well as compensation for personal injuries and fatalities during the hurricanes.

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