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10 People Who Overdosed on Caffeine and Died

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via medical daily

[dropcap]C[/dropcap]affeine is a wondrous stimulant that lifts our mood, enhances our performance, and increases our focus and productivity. It helps get us through the mid-day doldrums. Today, energy products are more popular than ever and companies are always seeking new things to stuff caffeine into. People have many options now when seeking a caffeine buzz, but as the availability of caffeine increases, so does the potential of over-doing it. Excessive caffeine consumption has proven to be a real health concern not to be overlooked. In the past decade, we have seen a troubling trend of caffeine-related deaths. From 2005 – 2009, reported cases of caffeine overdose went up from 1,128 to 13,114. Here are 10 people who went too far to get their caffeine high.

1. Michael Lee Bedford

via vice news

Michael Lee Bedford was a 23 year old British man who died tragically in 2010 after swallowing two spoonfuls of anhydrous caffeine powder and chased it with an energy drink. The caffeine content of this fatal cocktail was said to amount to 70 cans of red bull. The recommended dosage for the caffeine powder was only one-sixteenth of a teaspoon. Anhydrous caffeine powder is a bitter-tasting  and highly concentrated drug. The warning label on one brand advises not to exceed 200 mg in 24  hours (which is about 1/10th of a teaspoon). Bedford obtained the powder at a party from a friend and according to witness accounts, became ill 15 minutes after ingesting it. He vomitted blood and began sweating profusely. His speech was slurred and incoherent and EMTs were promptly called to the scene. Bedford’s death serves as a cautionary tale for the importance of always reading product warning labels.

 

2. Anais Fournier

via waynesboro record herald

Anais was a 14 year old girl living in Hagerstown, Maryland. She enjoyed reading vampire novels, had a boyfriend, a twin brother and little sister. It was some time around Christmas in 2011 when Anais died after drinking two 24 ounce cannisters of monster energy drink within a 24 hour span. She drank one the night before while at the mall with friends and the other on the following afternoon while relaxing at home where she went into cardiac arrest. Doctors induced her into a coma in order to prevent swelling in her brain but six days later, Anais was declared dead. Official cause of death was “cardiac arrhythmia due to caffeine toxicity.” Her mother told reporters how she had admonished her daughter about consuming energy drinks. It is believed that Anais’ tragic death was likely due to a pre-exisiting heart condition known as mitral valve prolapse. MVP is fairly common and affects 1 in 20 Americans but her doctor did not consider her to be at risk. According to the National Institute of Health, “Much of the time, MVP doesn’t cause any problems.”

 

3. Logan Steiner

Just days before his Highschool graduation, Logan Steiner was found dead in his home in LaGrange, Ohio. He was  an honors student and prom king who in the days leading up to his death, was burning the candle at both ends trying to prepare for exam finals. In an effort to power himself through his academic demands, Logan turned to caffeine powder purchased from Amazon. On May 27, 2014, he was found by his brother lying unresponsive on the living room floor. The medical examiner cited the cause of death as “cardiac arrhythmia and seizure, due to acute caffeine toxicity due to excessive caffeine ingestion.” Pure caffeine powder is highly potent and it’s believed that Logan miscalculated the prescribed dosage and ingested a fatal amount. One teaspoon of powdered caffeine can contain 1,600 milligrams. As little as 10 grams of caffeine is enough to induce death, but this figure varies based on other factors such as a person’s caffeine sensitivity.

 

4. Unamed Japanese Man

via news on japan

In 2014, a twenty-something year old man in Kyushu, Japan succumbed from caffeine intoxication. He became the first known case of caffeine-related death in his country. The man worked the night shift from midnight to dawn at a 24-hour gas station. After completing his shift, it is reported that he did not go to sleep until the following afternoon. It is believed that he consumed excessive amounts of caffeine over a period of years to combat sleepiness and fatigue. On the day he died, he began vomiting and was sent to the hospital where he was declared dead. His death was ruled as accidental and not due to any other pre-existing illness or abnormality. In addition to high concentrations of caffeine and alcohol found in his blood and urine, forensics also found in his stomach traces of what was possibly caffeine pills.

 

5. Dustin Hood 

In 2015, 19 year old Dustin Hood perished after binging on monster drinks. According to reports, Dustin drank 3 and a half 24-ounce canisters of monster energy drink within the span of 24 hours. He consumed roughly 735 mg of caffeine which is similar to that of 7 cups of coffee. He headed to a basketball court where he later collapsed from cardiac arrhythmia. Doctors attempted to resuscitate Dustin but he was declared dead at the hospital. It’s not known if Hood had any preexisting heart condition or other malady, that could have made him more susceptible to the cardiac arrhythmia that killed him. Dustin’s father has subsequently filed a lawsuit against monster seeking unspecified damages.

 

6. Cara Reynolds

the inquisitr

Cara Reynolds was a 24 year old nurse living in the United Kingdom. Standing at 5’4″ with a size 10 physique, she was not an over-weight woman. Despite this, she desired to shed some pounds and purchased slimming pills from Amazon. She bought Forza raspberry ketones, a supplement that contained 250 mg of caffeine per serving – about as much as 4 cans of 8 oz. red bulls. Weeks after taking the pills, Cara  experienced frightening heart palpitations and told her father she would discontinue using the product for weight loss. On March 5, 2013 Cara suffered a seizure after overdosing on ketone pills, having ingested an amount of caffeine tantamount to 225 cans of red bull. She vomited until she fell unconscious and was rushed to the hospital where doctors made 44 attempts to resuscitate her. Cara eventually died from cardiovascular collapse. Cara’s recent split from her fiance is believed to have led to her fateful overdose.

7. Honoré de Balzac

Long before there was Red Bull or Monster, coffee was the primary source of caffeine, and a drug of choice for many artists and writers. Honoré de Balzac was one such writer and an avid fan of strong black coffee consumed on an empty stomach. Balzac was a 19th Century French novelist and playwright best noted for his magnum opus La Comédie humaine. He was enamored with this dark potion and unabashedly sung it’s praises. He wrote eloquently of it’s fantastic properties and effects on him and he was rumored to have chugged up to 50 cups a day. It is believed that his coffee habit was what led to his death which according to accounts from people close to him, was preceded by profuse sweating, extreme weakness, stomach cramps, headaches, nervous twitches, and hypertension. He died August 18, 1850 at the age of 51 from heart failure due to caffeine poisoning.

 

8. John Jackson

via mirror

In May 2013, a 40 year old U.K man named John Jackson was discovered dead in his flat by his former partner. Medical examiners found that Jackson had 155mg of caffeine per liter of blood in his system. Just 10mg would have been considered an overdose. He had consumed an enormous amount of Hero energy mints purchased from a local shop prior to death. Each mint contained 80 mg of caffeine equivalent to that of an 8 oz. can of red bull. Jackson was a former painter and decorator and was reputed to have been a heavy drinker who suffered from cirrhosis of the liver. Due to the poor condition of his liver, his body would have been less able to filter toxins from the body and this could have contributed to his demise as coroners also found traces of other substances in his system.

9. Gemma Ann Jones

Gemma was a 26 year old woman who in 2013 was found dead in her home in Wales. She died from caffeine toxicity after swallowing 100 cups of espresso worth of caffeine pills. Gemma often texted messages to her friend Martin Lloyd expressing signs of depression. On November 18, Martin drove to Gemma’s home on a gut feeling that something was wrong after Gemma failed to return any of his phone messages. He found her car parked in the driveway but she did not answer the front door. After a obtaining a key from a neighbor, Martin entered the home to find Gemma laying on her side in bed with her face down on the pillow. There was a brown residue by her mouth. Martin was instructed to perform CPR by the emergency call support but by then Gemma was already dead. Toxicology tests showed she had ingested 50 – 100 tablets of EPH. EPH is a fat burner supplement containing ephedra. 79 tablets is considered to be lethal.

10. James Stone

James Stone was a healthy, responsible 19 year old from Wallingford Connecticut. Amid the economic downturn of the late 2000s, he was searching for work, putting in numerous applications like many others did. To fuel the intense job hunting effort, James took nearly 2 dozen No-Doz tablets within a short time span to stay awake and alert. Each tablet contained around 200 mg of caffeine and the amount he ingested was equal to roughly 48 cups of coffee. On November 27, 2006, James went to the bathroom and collapsed from a heart attack. The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Connecticut deemed the heart attack to have been brought on by “caffeine toxicity”. Since James’ death, his parents have sought to have better warning labels featured on caffeine products. “I’m not looking for any money or any sympathy,” James Stone Sr. said. “I just don’t think it’s right that people don’t know that this kind of thing can happen.”


 

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  • article mbti list Myers Briggs

    How Each Myers Briggs Type Sabotages Themselves

    Published by:

    http://thesamelie.deviantart.com/art/The-Long-Road-478441979
    http://thesamelie.deviantart.com/art/The-Long-Road-478441979

    “The Long Road” by caitlin-may

    INTP + ISTP


    SOCIAL SUICIDE


    The anxiety, awkwardness and rejection they’ve  experienced socially can drive the INTP/ISTP away from people causing them to miss out on opportunities to form meaningful connections with others. Their past embarrassments and moments of ineptitude may burrow deep into their psyche and lead the INTP/ISTP to capitulate and simply embrace their interpersonal inadequacy as part of the hand of cards they’ve been dealt. Unfortunately, when the INTP/ISTP eventually meets people who truly appreciate them for who they are they may have difficulty relinquishing the safety of their emotional isolationism. They may fear opening themselves up to a great relationship because they have wired themselves to anticipate disappointment.




    INTJ + INFJ


    Not Being in the Moment


    INTJs and INFJs are often so preoccupied with their personal goals and agenda that they tend to forget to stop and smell the roses and appreciate the moment. INTJ/INFJs are very future oriented often due to their malcontent with their current circumstances. They can spend a vast amount of time inside their heads pondering and planning the next project or experiment and focused on taking the next step in the progression of some larger scheme. As a result, the beauty of the fleeting present moments often go unnoticed or ignored while in pursuit of their goals. Down the road, the INTJ/INFJ may look back and wish they enjoyed the journey a little more.





    ENTP + ENFP


     Reinventing the wheel


    ENTPs and ENFPs are wantonly irreverent of tradition and stodgy customs. They may dismiss established modalities and systems for the sake of finding their own way of doing things. This may cause them to needlessly reinvent something that’s already existing or readily available even if is “old”. It is advantageous to learn from and embrace the useful bits from the past. Rather than disregard long standing traditions in wholesale as part of an obsolescent monolith, ENTP/ENFPs ought to examine their value and utilize them when it makes sense.




    ENTJ + ESTJ


    REFUSING TO BE HELPED


    ENTJs and ESTJs prize personal strength, independence and self reliance. They do not actively seek help from others because they believe in themselves and also they want to feel empowered and in control as much as possible. As a leader of a a team, they have no problem delegating and appropriating resources in the form of people to accomplish a group task. However in their personal lives, ENTJ/ESTJs prefer not to receive outside assistance with areas in which they may be struggling. They may not even acknowledge that they have a problem and may resist intervention by others who care about them.




    INFP + ISFP


    Procrastination


    When it comes to self-sabotage, procrastination is king. Why? Because procrastination is the gap between intention and action, and it is in this gap that the self operates. The undermining behavior lies in not closing the gap. INFP/ISFPs make an intention to act, but when the time comes, get lost in their own deliberation, making excuses to justify an unnecessary and potentially harmful delay.  They want to be organized and efficient, but are totally disorganized. INFP/ISFPs hate schedules and trying to keep to them wears them out. They can see that things are not working but don’t know how to fix them and get angry at themselves for being so disorganized.




    ENFJ + ESFJ


    SABOTAGING RELATIONSHIPS


    ENFJ/ESFJs have difficulty in being objective and developing a consistent standard unhampered by petty social allegiances. Their lack of internal self knowledge and self awareness opens them up to behaviors such as jealousy, possessiveness, emotional manipulation, neediness, violence and so forth.  They want to objectively understand other people, but discussing them in impersonal terms makes ENFJ/ESFJs feel uneasy and cold. They hate using impersonal logic or leverage against others. They want to ensure that they do things “right,” and must learn to step back from other people and situations and analyze them freely, without feeling like a traitor.




    ISFJ + ISTJ


    Reluctance to Try New Things


    ISFJ/ISTJs don’t like discussing things that have nothing to do with reality. They want to know that the conversation is going to accomplish something before they engage in it or they will become frustrated. Sometimes, they get a sense of what is going on between other people and are later proven right, but they are not always sure at the time that what they are picking up on is the truth. It can be difficult for ISFJ/ISTJs to make decisions that will impact the future, because they’re not sure what that future looks like … any of sixteen things might happen. They shy away from long-term commitments unless they feel absolutely safe; otherwise, they’re inclined to worry about what might happen. They can be impulsive once in awhile and others at times comment on how naive some of their belief systems are.




    ESFP + ESTP


    Not Planning Ahead

    ESFP/ESTPs thrive on action and getting immediate results. They are confident in their ability to adapt and respond to whatever life throws at them and as a result, they do not often concern themselves with long term planning. Their lack of patience seeks instant gratification and they are excellent improvisers but they may become suddenly discomfited by obstacles that they failed to anticipate or prepare for. They kind of hate introspecting, it seems a dangerous enterprise.  They prefer things that are symbolic or archetypal… and they come up with some crackpot theories at times with a tendency to be a little superstitious.






     

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  • article mbti list Myers Briggs

    The Major Vice of Each Myers Briggs Type

    Published by:

    via deviantart.com

    “Pills And Threeways 2” by hakanphotography

    INTP


    Vice: Caffeine


    INTPs are susceptible to becoming amphetamine junkies. They love caffeine because it fuels and even amplifies their stamina and focus for reading writing thinking and creating. They lurk the inter-webs at all hours hopping from website to website sifting through endless pages to satisfy their never-ending scatterbrained appetite for information. They should really get to bed but before they know it, it’s 1 AM. They go to school or work and use their caffeinated beverage of choice to get them through the day but at night their overstimulated nervous system won’t allow them to fall asleep even if they tried. Thus continues the cycle, of caffeine addiction. It may take an intervention from their loved ones before INTPs are able to break their habit only to relapse a couple weeks later.


    INTJ


    Vice: Trying to Takeover the world


    INTJs brood about the future and what they can do to ensure theirs is a successful one. They bury themselves in their work, preoccupied with testing and experimenting with the litany of ideas hatched by their Ni. They want some notoriety or at least something to show for their efforts. They tolerate what they need to and many of them learn to put on a social face to get along and integrate with other earthlings. Underneath their agreeable social mask however, is a power hungry monster who fantasizes about world domination. They want to be in the captain’s chair making the decisions, with a crew of capable peasants to answer their every beck and call. Fortunately, most INTJs are quite competent and would make excellent controllers …err, I mean leaders.



    ENTP


    Vice: Toying with people


    ENTPs make sport of poking holes in other people’s arguments. They may also get a rise out of testing boundaries with people which may extend to their romantic relationships. They can be like sociopaths when they try to see what they can get away with; how good they are at pulling the sheep’s wool over people. It takes some cunning, a little cleverness to deceive others; a challenge they are likely to find appealing. It would be a testament to their brilliance if they can have their cake and eat it too. Feelings may get hurt along the way but the drama makes for great story telling later.



    ENTJ


    Vice: Scheming and connivery


    ENTJs in their blind ambition may be tempted to dance with their dark side. They have the ability to draw up a plan that will fatten their wallets or rig the system in their favor. Some may develop an interest in magic and become skilled in the art of misdirection and manipulation. ENTJs are well suited as grifters or magicians such as Penn Jillette who uses an astute insight into human behavior to construct clever machinations designed to get the best of other people. ENTJs would also make excellent crime bosses with an ability to orchestrate an elaborate scheme and get away with it, at least for a while. Charles Ponzi, the notorious father of the titular Ponzi scheme, was likely an ENTJ. Fortunately most ENTJs direct their energy into more honest professions.



    INFP


    Vice: Staying up until the wee hours


    A lot of INFPs are vampiric night owls. Many of them come alive only in the after hours when the sun is done shining it’s awful light. They are liable to be bookworms and book sluts who can read all night when they really ought to be catching some restorative shuteye. Don’t be surprised to find them in bed getting cozy with a copy of Moby Dick or snuggling under the sheets with some good Charles D. (Dickens) to keep them company. Be it books or movies or youtube videos, INFPs can almost always find some distraction to delay their slumber. They are avid consumers of fiction and many indulge in the creation of their own.



    INFJ


    Vice: Perfectionism


    Perfectionism is a vain pursuit that sometimes does more harm than good. Many INFJs strive for it with excellent results but in the process place a lot of undue stress on themselves. They can be very hard on themselves in their effort to live up to their ideals and sense of purpose in the world. They derive a lot of pride from their work viewing it as a reflection on them and what they stand for. INFJs can be very impassioned and they channel their ardor and vision to produce something remarkable, beautiful and inspiring. But they can sometimes get caught up in their lofty standards to the point of becoming prima donnas and self-entitled drama kings/queens.



    ENFP


    Vice: Drinking & Smoking


    ENFPs carry an edgy libertine aura consistent with most creative people. Naturally, many of them are likely to pick up bad habits in the way of smoking and or drinking alcohol  often for the aura of machismo or “coolness” it exudes. They know it’s bad for them but they look so cool doing it and so it becomes a part of their self-image as well as a social lubricant. On the plus side, they likely will experience many amusing and comical situations that they will later share as stories.



    ENFJ


    Vice: Obstinance


    ENFJs are not perfect though they may try to be. They may have a self-righteous streak where they become convinced of the correctness of their beliefs and closed off to alternative view points. They can be inflexible on certain matters and issues and unwilling to bend or compromise. They may wantonly flout admonishments from others whether through outright or passive-aggressive dismissal.



    ISFJ


    Vice: Complaining & Cowardice


    ISFJs are often the squeaky wheels in need of oil. They seem ever-ready to voice concerns or grievances over things both real or imagined. Although responsible and sedulous, when it comes to problems, it sometimes seems as though they enjoy complaining about them more than solving them. Also, they are generally not so open to branching out of the comfort zones to challenge themselves. They doubt themselves too much and often avoid having to learn new skills or tackle tasks that look to daunting for them. It is mostly in their head and they would benefit from adopting a more positive and confident attitude.



    ISTJ


    Vice: Collecting Things


    ISTJs are misers with an affinity for coupons and rebates. The expression “a penny saved is a penny earned” was probably coined by them (pun intended). When they were young many ISTJs probably collected seashells, or rocks later graduating to collecting butterflies and coins. They also like collecting old things like commemorative stamps, $2 bills, rare baseball cards, autographed memorabilia and the like. They’re very fond of antiques and items with historical significance such as an unopened bottle of wine excavated from the titanic or the pair of undies Buzz Aldrin wore during the moon landing. ISTJs with abundant income may likely be found at auction houses bidding on useless objects worth a fortune.



    ESFJ


    Vice: Scuttlebutt


    ESFJs are friendly and personable individuals but two-faced as well. They love the rumor mill gossip and they shamelessly engage in water-cooler gab about all the latest in other people’s business. Their loyalties are with their friends whether right or wrong. However, some of their companions may wonder if their ESFJ friend ever talks about them behind their back. ESFJs think nothing of it when they blather about people and people is all they really talk about in general. They aren’t interested in discussing impersonal topics like the intellectual INTP or ENTP. ESFJs are unabashedly superficial and can hardly resist juicy drama.



    ESTJ


    Vice: Sadism


    ESTJs enjoying busting balls whether or not they possess a pair of their own. They are sometimes too strict and domineering and can clash with others especially intuitive perceiving types. ESTJs may be the ones who appreciate hierarchical structures the most, especially when they are at the top of it. The reins of power feel comfortable in their hands and they may derive a sadistic pleasure from pushing their underlings to the limit, mushing them like sleigh dogs. All the while insisting they are the just and fair arbiters of what is good and right.



    ISFP


    Vice: Debauchery


    ISFPs are heathens with a wild side to them that belies their placid and friendly demeanor.  They may appear shy but they have a sensual and stimulus-seeking nature that can get them into trouble. They can really cut loose when they unleash the party animal inside them and they have the capacity to be very impulsive, going wherever the mood takes them. This means lots of risky behavior and mischievous exploits including raunchy sexual escapades. It sounds sensational until someone ends up in an ambulance or behind bars.



    ISTP


    Vice: Mind-altering substances


    ISTPs like to engage their senses with weird stimuli. If they can get that sensation from a schedule 1 drug then all the better. They are open to experimenting with things that they think may expand their minds and enlarge their perspectives or simply get their endorphins going. They may even become an uncertified expert in pharmaceuticals, becoming very knowledgeable about various substances like psychadelics and hallucinogens. This recreational use can run awry when ISTPs attempt to self-medicate to alleviate their emotional problems or stress in general. A better therapy would be exercise and physical activity which they also enjoy.



    ESFP


    Vice: Vanity


    ESFPs can be a little too into themselves and may be preoccupied with superficial concerns relating to their attractiveness and popularity. Their sense of value is tied up in their image of how interesting and exciting a person they are. They want to be the life of the party and the center of attention. To do that, they feel the need to be either really funny or good looking or unpredictable and attention grabbing. They want to stand out as unique and fascinating and are most content when they feel admired and loved. They may feel threatened by other attention seekers who seek after the same glory. This often leads to jealousy and petty acts of vindictiveness or even depression and feelings of worthlessness.



    ESTP


    Vice: Exorbitant Spending


    ESTPs can be very materialistic or simply immoderate in their purchases. When they were young they were likely athletic and lean but gradually turned into a fatso with age. They enjoy the good things in life like fine cuisine and deep-tissue massages. If they are wealthy, they no doubt take great pride in their earning power and do not resist showing it off with their expensive property and possessions. They may shell out extra cash to make an impression or just to demonstrate that they have the power to do so. ESTPs don’t mind splurging on themselves and their loved ones but at the same time they do not take it lightly. It is not “easy come easy go” when it comes to finances but they are often skilled enough in the management of it that they are able to get away with a sumptuous lifestyle.



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